From LINKS Community Center
Publishing Organisation:Clayton Wukich, Cleveland State University
Audience experience level
Disaster Management Phase
- Issue: To identify and illustrate the range of strategies and tactics available for emergency managers using social media.
- This study uses content analysis of more than 80 related journal articles, research reports, and government documents as well as more than 120 newspaper articles, identified through LexisNexis search queries.
- Three strategies, information dissemination, monitoring real-time data, and engaging the public in a conversation and/or crowdsourcing, are available to emergency managers to augment communication practices via face-to-face contact and through traditional media outlets.
- Academic research has identified several message types disseminated during response operations.
- Message types during other emergency phases have received less attention; however, news reporting and government reports provide best practices and inform this study.
- This article provides the foundation for a more complete typology of emergency management messages. Relatedly, despite limited attention in the academic research, monitoring social media feeds to accrue situational awareness and interacting with others to generate a conversation and/or to coordinate collective action also take place in various forms and are discussed.
- Findings integrate the fragmented body of knowledge into a more coherent whole and suggest that practitioners might maximize outcomes through a three-step process of information dissemination, data monitoring, and the direct engagement of diverse sets of actors to spur risk reduction efforts.
- However, these steps require time, personnel, and resources, which present obstacles for agencies operating under conditions of personnel and resource scarcity.