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'''WRITING FOR SOCIAL MEDIA''' ''The Importance of Plain Language'' * Quickly engage the reader * Limit use of jargon, technical, or scientific language * Write in active voice * Keep messages short. * Write in a friendly but professional tone * Choose words with one definition or connotation * Use measurements that are familiar to your audience * Choose familiar terms, and use them consistently * Use acronyms with caution * Use numbers when they help you make your point * Consider using alternatives to words expressing mathematical concepts, such as risk, normal, and range, if those words do not have meaning to your audience ''Guidelines for incorporating social marketing into your communications'' Social marketing is about identifying the specific target audience segment(s), describing the benefits, and creating interventions that will influence or support the desired behavior change. * Highlight the positive aspects of your message * Answer the audience’s question, “What’s in it for me?” * Respect your audience. * Encourage your readers to take a particular action or to learn more. * Tie messages to specific products or services when possible ''Creating Content'' Social media content should be * Relevant, useful and interesting * Easy to understand and share * Friendly, conversational, and engaging - Action-oriented '''SOCIAL MEDIA TOOLS''' * Buttons and Badges **Buttons are graphic elements that usually include an image, a short call-to-action message, and a link for more information. They are often created to be shared, and include HTML code that allows them to be posted on a website. **Badges are also small graphic images that include a message and link to a web page. However, badges are often posted on an individual's social network profile or personal blog to show support for or affiliation with a cause or issue, and may include messages that show a personal action was taken * Image Sharing Image sharing involves posting images (photos, artwork, etc.) to public websites where they can be viewed, tagged, categorized, and even used by others * RSS Feeds RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication. RSS feeds provide an easy way to stay updated on information that is important to you and helps reduce the time it takes to browse or search for new information on web sites. RSS feeds provide updated news headlines, blog posts or selected website content. * Podcasts A podcast is a digital audio or video file that can be saved for playback on a portable media device or computer. The term “podcast” refers to both the actual content of the media file and the method by which the content is syndicated. * Online Video Sharing Online video sharing can be used by partners to share tailored health communication messages. Online video sites, such as YouTube, MSN and Yahoo have emerged as popular and powerful video sharing sites * Widgets A widget is an application that can be utilized by partners to display featured health content directly on their desktop, website or social media site. Widgets can also generally be shared with friends * eCards are electronic greeting cards that are sent to people’s email accounts * Blogs Blogs, or web logs, are regularly updated online journals that almost anyone with an internet connection can use. Some blogs target a small audience, while others boast a readership comparable to national newspapers. They may have only one author or a team of regular authors, but most blogs share a similar format in that the entries are posted in a reverse chronological order and may allow readers to comment on posts * Microblogs Twitter is an example of a microblog. Twitter is an information network made up of 140-character messages called tweets. It is used by millions of people, organizations, and businesses to discover and share new information. Twitter users subscribe to receive tweets by following an account. Followers receive messages in their timeline that includes a feed of all the accounts they have subscribed to. These short, easy to read, public messages make Twitter a powerful, real-time way of communicating * Social Networking Site Facebook an example of a social networking site. These are online communities where people can interact with friends, family, coworkers, acquaintances, and others with similar interests. Most social networking sites provide multiple ways for their users to interact such as chat, email, video, voice chat, file-sharing, blogging, and discussion groups. '''Please note: Access to the following links is currently only available for project partners''' Glossary: Social Media Tool kit Comprehensive description of Social Media toolkits Key facts to consider when writing for Social Media Comprehensive advice to consider when writing for Social Media Social Media Evaluation Worksheet  
'''Benefits of Crowdsourcing''' * The most obvious benefit of crowdsourcing is that it can be used to help collect large amounts of data in real time at potentially lower costs than traditional approaches. * Indeed, the “power of the crowd”, when combined with modern information and communication technologies, is the ability to conduct simple tasks such as measurement or observation at scale by enlisting large numbers of participants. * Though this potential is certainly significant, it is definitely not the only benefit of crowdsourcing information about risk assessment. * Another important reason to consider including crowdsourcing in risk assessment is that in addition to providing information, participants are themselves learning about risk in their area. * Crowdsourcing thus becomes an avenue for risk communication through outreach and sensitization. * Through involving new participants in the process, crowdsourced approaches also create opportunities to make risk assessment more inclusive. This can both improve the quality of the risk assessment through including local knowledge and raise public confidence in the results through increased understanding and ownership of the results. '''Issues to consider when planning a crowdsourcing project''' *First step is to decide what information participants will be asked to contribute to the risk assessment *Define early in the planning who “the crowd” will be *What, if any, technical background should participants have? *How many participants are needed? *How will they be recruited? *Will they be compensated? *Will the risk assessment team have time to provide active oversight and feedback? *How can the project be sure to reach vulnerable or marginalized groupsthat typically might not be included? '''Please note: Access to the following link is currently only available for project partners''' Issues to consider when planning a crowdsourcing project  
This guide focuses on the following areas: * A brief orientation and perspective on the media for public officials, including discussion of how the media thinks and works, and on the public as the end-recipient of information * Techniques for responding to and cooperating with the media in conveying information and delivering messages before, during, and after a public health crisis * Tools of the trade of media relations and public communications * Strategies and tactics for addressing opportunities and challenges that may arise as a consequence of communications initiatives '''Five Rules for Building Trust and Credibility''' *1. Accept and involve the public as a partner. **Work with and for the public to inform, dispel misinformation and, to every degree possible, allay fears and concerns. *2. Appreciate the public’s specific concerns. **Statistics and probabilities don’t necessarily answer all questions. **Be sensitive to people’s fears and worries on a human level. **Your position does not preclude your acknowledging the sadness of an illness, injury, or death. **Do not overstate or dwell on tragedy, but do empathize with the public and provide answers that respect their humanity. *3. Be honest and open. **Once lost, trust and credibility are almost impossible to regain. **Never mislead the public by lying or failing to provide information that is important to their understanding of issues. *4. Work with other credible sources. **Conflicts and disagreements among organizations and credible spokespersons create confusion and breed distrust. **Coordinate your information and communications efforts with those of other legitimate parties. *5. Meet the needs of the media. **Never refuse to work with the media. **The media’s role is to inform the public, which will be done with or without your assistance. **Work with the media to ensure that the information they are providing the public is as accurate and enlightening as possible. **If your agency or organization has a communications office, work with them on approaches to dealing with the media. ''SOURCE: Covello and Allen, 1988; Palttala, Boano, Lund, & Vos, 2012'' '''CONTENT''' *Communications Fundamentals *Communicating Complex, Scientific, and Technical Information *Myths, Principles, And Pitfalls *Understanding and Working with the Media *Using Social Media Before And During Crises *Correcting Errors and Rumor Control *Assessing Personal Strengths and Weaknesses *Presenting Information at Public Meetings *Recognizing Opportunities to Speak Out  
This tool addresses the needs of practitioners and allows them to easily access relevant guidance materials. The Tool is considered as a resource guide/material for practitioners and not an academic paper. '''GLOSSARY''' * Crowdsourcing **The term crowdsourcing refers to a way of organizing the work, which involves an information system to coordinate and monitor tasks performed by people. **Moreover, this term can be understood as a production model where the intelligence and knowledge of volunteers are used to solve problems, create content and develop new technologies. **Volunteers performing a specific task, such as environmental monitoring, collectively make a citizen observatory (CO), where data can be collected, collated and published. **Currently, several crowd-sourcing platforms support disaster management, enabling the gathering of information from citizens about the affected areas, as well as their analysis and visualization * Citizen observatory **the term citizen observatory can be understood as a software platform for obtaining volunteered information about a specific topic through different devices (e.g. Web browser, mobile application and SMS) and allow their visualization. * Volunteered geographic information (VGI). **volunteered geographic information (VGI) means that geographic information is being produced by people who have little formal qualification. **Among the advantages associated with VGI, researchers emphasize its use to enhance, update or complement existing geospatial datasets. **Recent natural disasters have shown that volunteered information, provided through the Internet, can improve situational awareness by providing an overview of the present situation. **This is because VGI offers a great opportunity to raise awareness due to the potentially large number of volunteers – more than six billion people – who can potentially act as “sensors”, recording important parameters for disaster management in a local environment. '''Benefits and Potentialities''' * Magnitude **Compared to traditional media and the manner in which news is disseminated, social media are able to create a dense network of observers who are able to rapidly publish and share information. **This is a powerful tool for crisis communication. **The benefit of social media for crisis management is that it is created by a crowd and available to all. **Rapid sharing of information would not be possible without such openness * Flexibility and speed **Another benefit of crowdsourcing applied to crisis-mapping is its flexibility, linked to the speed of information circulation. **As noted, an important emphasis is today placed on flexibility in response speed, so that emergency responders can adjust their actions to changing demands. * Cheapness and optimization **An important feature of crowdsourcing applied to crisis-mapping is its cheapness. In fact, by using crowdsourcing, technical infrastructure, tools, and existing human resources are optimized on a large scale, with lower investments (e.g. for software and platforms) than those traditionally used in crisis-mapping * Accuracy **Accuracy is a further important benefit of crowdsourcing applied to crisis-mapping. **Actually, the information and communication technologies applied within the context of disasters allow for an exchange and reciprocity between those providing information and those seeking it. * Broader citizens/societal engagement and awareness **By engaging with various kinds of stakeholders, including government officials, local communities and organizations and the private sector, crowdsourced crisis-mapping helps to raise disaster awareness, increase the understanding of risk and encourage cooperation, thus strengthening the collective resilience and related action of affected communities in many ways * Solidarity action **Crowdsourcing, applied to crisis-mapping, also improves the actions of solidarity in favour of those most in trouble and who need special and urgent interventions. * Improved governance in areas of limited statehood **Information technologies – and crowdsourcing tools and platforms in particular – can help in filling the gap of the limited statehood, enhancing the available resources and interpersonal relations already existing at the local level '''Limits''' * Data validity **Authentication of information is crucial because of the obvious risks associated with an unregulated stream of information, especially as it can spread misinformation rapidly online **There is the need for common and structured procedures for verification of submitted data. * Data quality and quantity **An open question linked to crowdsourcing applied to crisis-mapping is that of data quality and quantity. ***Are data in a usable format? ***How to manage a large amount of data? * Difficulties in forecasting events **A major limitation of crowdsourcing applied to crisis-mapping is its limited (for now) ability to forecast events. **If, on the one hand, crowdsourcing is effective in managing crisis situations as they occur, or immediately afterwards, this is not the case with regard to forecasting and preventing. * IT infrastructure accessibility **A further limitation of crowdsourcing applied to crisis-mapping is related to the digital divide and consists in that, despite the increasing popularity of mobile phones and the Internet around the world, there are, in any case, large segments of the population (especially among the poorest) that do not have access, or who have limited and intermittent access, to these resources, or through others. * Privacy, security and ethical concerns **In politically sensitive environments, building a set of trusted information sources may involve major security issues. It can seriously compromise the safety of the people who originally published information on social media. * Integration with other information collection systems **An important open issue for crisis-mapping today is the integration of new information and communication tools, used by crowdsourcing operators, into other “traditional” information collection systems, such as sensors and other surveillance systems '''Some tools''' * Ushahidi **Ushahidi allows people in any part of the world to disseminate and collect information about a crisis. Information can be submitted by users via text message, e-mail or Web postings, and the data are aggregated and organized into a map or timeline. * The projects of the International Network of Crisis Mappers **Crisis Mappers Net is the largest and most active international community of experts, practitioners, policymakers, technologists, researchers, journalists, scholars, hackers and skilled volunteers engaged at the intersection of humanitarian crises, new technology, crowd-sourcing, and crisis-mapping. * Sahana **This free and open source software project is supported by hundreds of volunteer contributors from dozens of countries, national and local authorities and relief agencies in their response to numerous large- scale and sudden-onset disasters * Google Crisis Response **Google Crisis Response organizes emergency alerts and news updates relating to a crisis and publishes the information on its Web properties or dedicated landing pages * International Charter on Space and Major Disasters **The organization provides for the charitable and humanitarian re-tasked acquisition of and transmission of space satellite data to relief organizations in the event of major disasters * Humanitarian Open Street Map Team (HOT) **HOT coordinates the creation, production and distribution of free mapping resources to support humanitarian relief efforts in many places around the world. * Water Detective application **Water Detective is a generic cross mobile application (app) used by citizens and professionals alike to report on all kinds of water-related problems. A user can select categories (such as flooding, dyke issue, etc.), helping the government become aware of (possibly) high-impact situations. '''Please note: Access to the following link is currently only available for project partners''' Collaborative production of knowledge, volunteered geographic information, crowdsourcing in crisis-mapping:  
'''Crisis Communication Plan''' The main elements of a robust crisis communication plan include: * Statement of company communication policy, including the names (or positions) of authorized spokespeople * Outline of the communication organization, and its interface with the corporate Crisis Management Team (the head of communications should sit on the CMT) * Protocols for ensuring all available communication channels are properly coordinated and that information and messaging is consistent to all audiences * Description of functional roles and responsibilities, and candidates * Checklists for each functional role, outlining the main tasks * Templates for initial statements and employee communications, including the first online posts, which can be issued immediately after key information is confirmed. * Templates should be developed for various possible scenarios, including accident; serious incident; diversion; hijacking/security incident; service disruption * Database with phone and email addresses of important internal and external contacts (including primary media outlets, online influencers and service providers) * Standard forms and documentation (for example, media call logging form, press conference registration form '''Crisis communication team''' At a minimum, the team should be capable of executing the following functional responsibilities. ''If resources are limited, one individual may be responsible for two or more functions'' * Communication Representative on the Crisis Management Team (CMT) **The Communication Representative on the CMT is responsible for providing strategic communications advice to the CEO and members of the CMT, and for ensuring that accurate and timely information to internal and external stakeholders is provided. * Communication Team Leader **The Communication Team Leader is responsible for the overall management of the Communication Team and for ensuring that the communication strategy is executed. * Content Developer **The Content Developer is responsible for drafting all written materials or other content used in response to the crisis, including news releases, backgrounders, briefing documents and statements (eg video statements) * Online Communication Manager **The Online Communication Manager is responsible for managing the company’s social media and online channels. **The Online Communication Manager also coordinates online activities with other departments such as the commercial team, monitoring online conversations about the situation and advising on whether the company should engage with online conversations by posting responses on “owned” or third-party social media platforms. * Internal Communication Manager **The Internal Communication Manager is responsible for ensuring that all statements are provided to employees via internal communication channels * Network Co-ordinator **The Network Coordinator is responsible for maintaining contact with offices and PR Agencies across the network, and for ensuring that they receive updated information as it is released from Head Office * Media Monitoring Coordinator **The Media Monitoring Coordinator is responsible for ensuring that all relevant electronic, print and online media coverage is collated and reported to the Crisis Management Team * Media Enquiry Center Manager **The Media Enquiry Center Manager is responsible for supervising the team answering incoming media calls, and for ensuring that agents responding to reporters are provided with updated statements and talking points. * Communication Representative/s on the Go-Team (which may be sent to the incident) **The Communication Representative/s on the Go-Team is/are responsible for travelling to the scene of the event and coordinating all communication activities locally '''Please note: Access to the following links is currently only available for project partners''' Key facts Crisis Communication Team & Plan: Comprehensive Advice Crisis Communication Team & Plan:  
'''Ungebundene Helferinnen und Helfer im Bevölkerungsschutz''' * sind nichtbetroffene Bürgerinnen und Bürger in einer Katastrophe. * Sie werden eigenständig aktiv aus dem Bedürfnis heraus, anderen in einer Notlage zu helfen. * Sie sind nicht Mitglieder einer Katastrophenschutzorganisation im Einsatz. **Insofern kann bei diesen Hilfeleistenden nicht von einer dem Einsatz entsprechenden Ausbildung ausgegangen werden. **Gleichwohl bringen sie eine Vielzahl von Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen aus ihrem persönlichen und ggf. beruflichen Hintergrund mit. * Ihre Hilfeleistung findet gemeinwohlorientiert und unentgeltlich statt. **Sie wird in der Regel außerhalb ihres unmittelbaren räumlichen wie sozialen Umfelds erbracht. * Die Helferinnen und Helfer mobilisieren sich bzw. koordinieren ihre Hilfstätigkeiten selbstständig und ereignisbezogen. **Dies geschieht vor allem über Social Media wie Facebook. ''Das Dokument befasst sich insbesondere mit folgenden Themen:'' * Einbeziehung ungebundener HelferInnen: ja oder nein? * Positive Entscheidung zum Einsatz ungebundener HelferInnen * Ansprache von ungebundenen HelferInnen * Integration und Koordination ungebundener HelferInnen * Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen '''Bitte beachten Sie: Der Zugriff auf den folgenden Link ist derzeit nur für Projektpartner möglich''' Handlungs- und Umsetzungsempfehlungen für den Einsatz ungebundener HelferInnen  +
<big>'''Guidelines for emergency services & public authorities'''</big> '''Prepare to start using social media''' * Consider the legal implications * Consider the needs in human and financial resources * Prepare a social media strategy * Clearly communicate the social media strategy and provide staff training * Explore what Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools are available for social media monitoring and analysis * Use of apps for direct communication (Authorities-to-Citizens and Citizens-to-Authorities) * Plan the next steps to start using social media '''Before an emergency''' * Provide information about your organization, its operations and emergency prevention and preparation * Raise awareness on the use of social media * Use of ICT tools for social media monitoring and analysis * Team up with other groups and organizations * Publish alerts for the risk of an upcoming emergency '''During an emergency''' * Understand how social media is used by citizens during emergencies * Establish communication with the public * Request information from the public * Use of ICT tools for social media monitoring and analysis * Respond to false information and rumors * Collaborate with emergent group initiatives '''After an emergency''' * Continue the communication with the citizens * Evaluate your social media use during the emergency <big>'''Guidelines for citizens'''</big> '''General Aspects while using social media''' * Interact with respect and courtesy * You are responsible for your writing, think of possible consequences * Protect your privacy and check the privacy settings * Respect intellectual property rights, including pictures, graphics, audio and video files * Verify your information before posting * Correct a mistake if you made one '''Before an emergency''' * Be prepared: * Know the social media accounts of your local and national ES and follow them. This will help find real-time information during an emergency. * Read what to expect from Emergency Services in social media. * Follow the information from Emergency Services on how to prevent and stay safe during emergencies '''During an emergency''' * Stay up-to-date and follow official accounts and local organizations to get information updates * Social media does not replace 112. If in danger, always call 112 first. * Be responsible and avoid spreading rumors! '''When you post information about an emergency in social media: * Always mention the Emergency Services account or include any already used hashtags. When possible, report a location and use photos * Tell only facts and don’t send information you are not certain about * Share only official and reliable information and avoid spreading rumors! * If you spot or shared false information, please correct it * Forward received official messages to your contacts or share them '''Volunteering initiatives''' * Look for emergent volunteer initiatives in Facebook groups, Google crisis maps or trusted users in Twitter; they may help to increase the impact of your activities! * If you intend to initiate your emergent volunteer initiative, please check for existing initiatives first and carefully chose the scope of your possible contribution. '''After an emergency''' * Follow official accounts and local organizations to get information updates * Communicate even after a crisis and use social media for the processing of the event * Give feedback to the authorities * Restore missing contact and ask for welfare of family and friends * Help others reconstructing/handling the event <big>'''Data Protection and Privacy Guidelines for Processing Social Media Data'''</big> '''CONTENT''' *Responsibility **Project responsibility **Who do you answer to? *Is what you are proposing lawful? **Consent **Transparency **Special Categories of Personal Data *Data rights of the citizen **Subject Access Request **Right of Erasure **Data Portability *Project controls **Data protection officer **Privacy impact assessment **Continuous monitoring *Infrastructure controls **Privacy by design **Codes of Conduct **Breach handling **Subject Access Request handling '''Please note: Access to the following links is currently only available for project partners''' Comprehensive advice for Citizens Key words for emergency services & authorities Comprehensive advice for emergency services & authorities Key words Data Protection Comprehensive advice Data Protection  
In dit document wordt uitgelegd wat social media zijn en wat ze kunnen betekenen voor ProRailers '''Richtlijnen''' Zorg dat je de gedragscode kent! Online gelden dezelfde richtlijnen als in het dagelijkse ‘offline’ leven. * Geen vertrouwelijke informatie * Op persoonlijke titel * Bedenk goed wat je zegt * Beperk je tot je eigen vakgebied * Houd ons op de hoogte * Geef geen antwoord op vragen van journalisten * Eigen verantwoordelijkheid  +
'''GDPR Overview''' *What is GDPR ** *Everything you need to know about the “Right to be forgotten” ** *What are the GDPR Fines? ** '''GDP Compliance''' *Data protection and working remotely ** *Cookies, the GDPR, and the ePrivacy Directive ** *Everything you need to know about GDPR compliance ** *GDPR checklist for data controllers **  +
<big> '''WHAT IS THE AIM OF THE REGULATION?'''</big> *The general data protection regulation (GDPR) protects individuals when their data is being processed by the private sector and most of the public sector. *The processing of data by the relevant authorities for law-enforcement purposes is subject to the data protection law enforcement directive (LED) instead (see summary). *It allows individuals to better control their personal data. It also modernises and unifies rules, allowing businesses to reduce red tape and to benefit from greater consumer trust. *It establishes a system of completely independent supervisory authorities in charge of monitoring and enforcing compliance. <big> '''KEY POINTS'''</big> '''Individuals’ rights''' The GDPR strengthens existing rights, provides for new rights and gives individuals more control over their personal data. It includes the following. *Easier access to an individual's own data. **This includes providing more information on how that data is processed and ensuring that that information is available in a clear and understandable way. *A new right to data portability. **This makes it easier to transmit personal data between service providers. *A clearer right to erasure (right to be forgotten). **When an individual no longer wants their data to be processed and there is no legitimate reason to keep it, the data will be deleted. *The right to know when their personal data has been breached. **Companies and organisations have to notify the relevant data protection supervisory authority and, in cases of serious data breaches, also the individuals affected. '''Rules for businesses''' The GDPR creates a level playing field for all companies operating in the EU internal market, adopts a technology-neutral approach and stimulates innovation through a number of steps, which include the following. *A single set of EU-wide rules. **A single EU-wide law for data protection increases legal certainty and reduces administrative burden. *A data protection officer. **A person responsible for data protection has to be designated by public authorities and by businesses that process data on a large scale, or whose core activity is the processing of special categories of data, such as health-related data. *One-stop shop. **Businesses only have to deal with one single supervisory authority (in the EU Member State in which they have their main establishment); the relevant supervisory authorities cooperate in the framework of the European Data Protection Board for cross-border cases. *EU rules for non-EU companies. **Companies based outside the EU must apply the same rules when offering services or goods to, or when monitoring the behaviours of, individuals within the EU. *Innovation-friendly rules. **A guarantee that data protection safeguards are built into products and services from the earliest stage of development (data protection by design and by default). *Privacy-friendly techniques. **''Pseudonymisation'' (when identifying fields within a data record are replaced by one or more artificial identifiers) and ''encryption'' (when data is coded in such a way that only authorised parties can read it), for example, are encouraged, in order to limit the intrusiveness of processing. *Removal of notifications. **The GDPR scrapped most notification obligations and the costs associated with these. ***One of its aims is to remove obstacles that affect the free flow of personal data within the EU. ***This will make it easier for businesses to expand in the single digital market. *Data protection impact assessments. **Organisations will have to carry out impact assessments when data processing may result in a high risk for the rights and freedoms of individuals. *Record keeping. **Small and medium-sized enterprises are not required to keep records of processing activities – unless the processing is regular or likely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of the person whose data is being processed, or includes sensitive categories of data. *A modern toolbox for international data transfers. **The GDPR offers various instruments to transfer data outside the EU, including adequacy decisions adopted by the European Commission where the non-EU country offers an adequate level of protection, pre-approved (standard) contractual clauses, binding corporate rules, codes of conduct and certification.  
The document provides the final guidelines for the '''Contribution of Social Media in Crisis Management (COSMIC)''' project. The guidelines aim to enhance the safety and security of citizens by supporting both citizens, and public authorities, in their use of social media to complement their crisis management efforts. <big>'''TIPS AND TRICKS FOR PUBLIC AUTHORITIES'''</big> '''PRE-CRISIS PHASE''' * Develop a social media strategy for all members of your organization * Ensure privacy & data protection * Prepare for increased communication and information flows during a crisis and take preparations to monitor these information flows * Facilitate information sharing by first responders * Establish collaboration and communication channels with relevant organizations like (other) public authorities before a crisis * Practice the relation between internal and external communication processes regularly * Be careful with using participatory actions to increase follower engagement * Encourage citizens to support disaster management capacities by using social media when crises occur and provide them with guidance to help fulfil your needs * Create awareness for responsible and effective use of social media during crises by citizens and employees * Stimulate recognizability of information and ensure continuity * Use social media accounts to prepare citizens for high probability hazards and to inform them of the hazards they face '''CRISIS PHASE''' * Communicate regularly, quickly and with honesty, candor and openness * Ensure information reaches your target audience & differentiate in communication channels * Ensure clear, effective, to the point communication and continuity * Work with others to gain information, encourage the sharing of information and the building of situational awareness * Encourage citizens to inform and help others * Stimulate the flow of information & add value * Be transparent in how you use data and address copyright and privacy issues * Ensure information is correct: Verify, Validate and correct (mis)information! * Facilitate the (enhanced) communication needs ''Private companies:'' * Monitor and cooperate with the (conventional) channels of crisis communication by public authorities to ensure that communication and advice directed at citizens will be recognized * Cooperate with and adapt to emergent group initiatives on social media during crises and encourage citizens to do so, too '''POST-CRISIS PHASE''' * Direct people to after care initiatives & encourage them to care for each other * Elicit resources for the recovery * Seek feedback from those you communicated with during a crisis situation <big>'''TIPS AND TRICKS FOR CITIZENS'''</big> *WHEN PREPARING ''Prepare yourself for crises'' * WHEN SEEKING AID ''Ask for help and disclose your location'' * WHEN SEEKING INFORMATION ''Ensure your information is trustworthy'' * WHEN PROVIDING AID ''Participate in the flow of information'' '' Volunteer to support emergency services'' * WHEN MOBILIZING '' Create and stimulate networks'' '' Stimulate the networks action potential'' '' Mobilize to address crises of societal values'' '' Ensure your and others safety'' * WHEN REPORTING INFORMATION '' Ensure a broad scope & consider your communication venue'' '' Ensure your information is correct and can be validated or verified'' '' Engage ethically in citizen media practices'' '''Please note: Access to the following links is currently only available for project partners''' Key words for Citizens: Comprehensive Advice for Citizens: Key words for authorities: Comprehensive advice for authorities:  
This document provides guidance on how social media can be integrated into communication in emergency management. * Having effective communication among organizations and with the public are important aspects of emergency management. * It is important that organizations recognize the potential benefits and threats inherent when using social media in their communication strategy, including crisis communication. * Social media can improve situational awareness and communication capability and help citizens support each other during an emergency or crisis. * Social media can also spread inaccurate information regarding an incident and the response to an incident. * Organizations that have the capability to monitor and use social media can take advantage of the potential benefits and counteract the potential negative consequences that can arise from social media. Preview * Glossary of terms related to security and resilience * '''Note: Only informative sections of standards are publicly available. To view the full content, you will need to purchase the standard from your national ISO member or the ISO Store.'''  +
'''The role of social media in crisis communications''' During a crisis, social media can help brands: * ''Communicate updates to your audience;'' * ''Support people who need help or information;'' * ''Listen and learn about current events and what people need from your brand.'' * '''Tips for communicating on social media during a crisis or emergency''' Make sure your social media policy includes the following: * ''An up-to-date emergency contact list. Not just your social media team but legal advisors and executive decision-makers, too.'' * ''Guidance on accessing social account credentials. Where is that information, and how can someone find it?'' * ''Guidelines for identifying the scope of the crisis (i.e., is it global or local, does it affect your operations, does it affect your customers, and to what extent?)'' * ''An internal communication plan for employees.'' * ''An approval process for your response strategy.'' '''Social media crisis communications plan template''' Get a social media crisis communications plan in place while everything is business-as-usual. That way, you’ll be able to jump into action ASAP when life goes sideways. get started with a crisis communication plan template for social media. * ''Assess potential crises'' * ''Potential questions and responses'' * ''Posting outlets and schedules'' * ''Key stakeholders'' *'' Guidelines for social media''  +
<big>'''Support for people with specific needs'''</big> * Consult with members of vulnerable populations directly and facilitate their involvement at all stages of the disaster management process. * Ensure that accessibility and usability of telecommunication/ICTs are considered * Use multiple strategies and mechanisms to promote accessible telecommunication/ICT * Build the capacity of vulnerable populations to use telecommunication/ICTs in disaster situations * Use multiple modes of communication to provide information before, during and after disasters * Be aware of the potential for misuse of personal data of vulnerable populations in disaster situations * Provide information packs, guides and manuals; conduct public awareness campaigns in multiple accessible formats in different languages; and provide sensitized resource persons to impart the contents of these packs to persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups. * Develop, promote and distribute mainstream and assistive technologies that can be used during emergencies and disasters * Develop frameworks to facilitate inter-agency collaboration * Specify accessible telecommunication/ICT infrastructure * Ensure that all services, facilities and infrastructure developed after a disaster are accessible and inclusive. * Provide information in multiple formats and through multiple modes about ongoing recovery efforts and how to get help or access resources * Review disaster response efforts to assess any challenges for vulnerable groups '''Telecommunications/ICT to support people with specific needs''' Incorporation of multiple forms of ICT is key to bringing messages to all people, without discrimination of age, gender, ability or location. To ensure this inclusiveness, the following considerations are required: * Public address systems: **Alerts in audio and visual formats through public loudspeakers and electronic displays **Sirens can be accompanied by flashing lights to denote the nature and level of threat. * Radios: **Radios can be used with attachments or with special features to enable use by people who are deaf or hard of hearing. * Television: **Employing closed captioning or subtitling in local languages can make audio commentary accessible to people who have hearing impairments or do not understand the language. **In addition, sign language interpreters should be used when providing televised information about a disaster or emergency situation. * SMS: **If information is sent out only as SMS, people who need non-visual inputs and don’t have access to high-end devices that can convert text to other formats such as audio will be excluded. * E-mail: **Notifications should be enabled in multiple languages. **The software should be designed as per accessibility guidelines to enable it to operate seamlessly with a user’s assistive technology. o Use of graphics within the alert may assist people who have trouble understanding the language, children and individuals with cognitive disabilities. * Social Media **Social media sites should also be designed to be accessible and to work with a user’s assistive technology. **Finally, although the new versions of the most popular social networks are offering accessibility features, it is important that the agencies publishing emergency information on these platforms know about electronic content accessibility to ensure that the messages are accessible. * Websites: **Websites providing disaster management information must be tested for accessibility to ensure that persons with disabilities do not face barriers in accessing the important information shared on the website. <big>'''National emergency telecommunication plan (NETP)'''</big> * sets out a strategy to enable and ensure communications availability during the disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery phases, by promoting coordination across all levels of government, between public and private organizations, and within communities at risk. * Preparation and implementation of an NETP engages stakeholders to think through the life cycle of a potential disaster, it determines the required capabilities for emergency responses, and establishes a governance framework of roles and responsibilities. * It also clarifies how to shape planning, envision and share desired outcomes, and it outlines effective ways to achieve and communicate expected results. * The NETP will reflect what diverse stakeholder communities need to focus on in order to address specific risks with available resources. '''Please note: Access to the following links is currently only available for project partners''' Emergency Communication checklist Evaluation of Emergency Communication checklist Key facts: Support for people with specific needs Comprehensive Advice on Support for people with specific needs  
'''Stakeholders roles in an inclusive and accessible digital transformation''' Stakeholders take on different responsibilities and opportunities. '''Governments and policy-makers''' *Develop laws and policies that ensure equality regarding access to information and communication technologies for all. It is a global commitment and a human right. *Work with organizations of persons with disabilities and vulnerable groups while developing these laws and regulations to listen to, and incorporate, their input. *Promote the creation of a market for accessible ICTs through well planned procurement policies and high standards. *Increase labour opportunities for persons with disabilities by using accessible products and services. *Foster economic and social development for all. '''Industry''' *Develop accessible products and services according to international standards *Foster inclusion through innovation and corporate social responsibility. *Increase job opportunities for persons with disabilities by using and providing accessible products and services. '''Academia''' *Create capabilities among designers and developers to design and develop accessible ICT products and services. *Foster the production and usage of accessible digital content. *Develop accessible learning environments for students with disabilities. '''Organizations of persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups''' *Work with governments to ensure their right to access ICTs is recognized. *Ensure a set of minimum digital abilities to access the digital economy. *Create awareness about digital inclusion and ICT accessibility. '''Any other stakeholder involved and/or interested party''' *Support implementation from top down and bottom up. *Identify key partnerships to facilitate the process.  +
The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of current and innovative social media strategies used by public safety organizations to engage interactively with the public during all phases of emergency situations * Established social media networks are in widespread use and allow for the dissemination of data-rich, contextual multimedia including narrative, photos, and videos. * Therefore, by incorporating social media into their communications strategies, public safety organizations can leverage the power of these popular information-sharing technologies to enhance their efforts through all phases of an emergency. '''Social Media Implementation Methods''' * Develop a strategic plan **Identify the target audience, objectives, tactics, and staffing requirements including roles and responsibilities 
 **Create a governance structure for approvals 
 **Identify desired social media channels and processes * Establish and adopt policies **Develop overarching documents that provide guidance to emergency managers for the effective use of social media **Implement policies that help foster leadership support and sustainable strategies * Establish a Social Media Presence **Establish accounts on popular social media platforms and become familiar with the online culture by sustaining an active presence 
**Establish a complementary mix of social media **Engage with the community in advance through social media and recommend standard hashtags * Manage Expectations **Engage early and often with the public to help set realistic expectations during emergencies 
 **Disclose the source, type, and frequency of official emergency communications 
 * Establish a concept of operations **Determine how social media will be managed during emergencies 
 **Establish training and staffing plans to allocate more resources to social media monitoring during an incident **Incorporate social media strategies into emergency management exercises * Distribute timely and frequent updates **Pre-engage the public to increase visibility and credibility by posting regular updates during all phases of emergencies and during times of non-emergencies * Coordinate with partnering organisations **Partner with other organizations to coordinate consistent key messages **Set up a central online source for emergency-related information from a variety of official sources 
 **Coordinate social media efforts regionally 
 * Actively monitor Social Media Content **Monitor conversations on popular social networks **Engage with community members by responding to questions and comments and providing clarification * Evaluate public information **Monitor social media channels to assess the manner in which official messages are being received **Quickly correct any misperceptions or inaccurate rumors **Use social media management tools to track, analyze, and document messages * Utilize maps to increase visual context **Use mashups and location services such as crisis maps to provide visual and spatial viewing of social media content **Include layered map data such as evacuation zones and shelter locations **Allow community members to submit damage reports containing photos, videos, and eyewitness accounts relating to the emergency response * Engage with Digital Volunteers Organizations and Virtual Operations Support Teams (VOST) **Enlist digital volunteer communities to help satisfy demand for information when in-house resources are taxed **Use a VOST to monitor sites, spot trends, and seek and disseminate information * Improve Community Awareness **Engage in community discussions and follow relevant hashtags in order to build and maintain better awareness for the Whole Community **Include collaborative dialogue about hardships, consequences, and developing safety concerns * Plan for loss of connectivity **Ensure the network infrastructure is robust and able to handle peak demands during disasters **Establish a contingency plan that can mitigate loss of power and connectivity * Engage with community members after an incident **Seek feedback from community members to help assess the usefulness and frequency of information shared through social media '''Please note: Access to the following link is currently only available for project partners''' Social Media Implementation Methods and Descriptions  
'''Effective social media crisis communication''' * is about using the potential for dialogue and choosing the right message, source and timing * is about being prepared, understanding social media logic, and making friends before you need them * is about using social media for monitoring * is still about prioritizing traditional media * is just about using social media  +
The '''purpose of this document ''' *Provide guidance to public safety agencies developing social media strategies and programs *Discuss challenges and considerations related to social media specific for agency use *Provide best practices and policy examples for inclusion in agency strategies Some things to '''consider when developing policies ''' *Human Resources **Resources required **Training and education required **Job descriptions **Liability **Ethical conduct and accountability to an agency’s rules of conduct ***personal versus professional use of social media tools and technologies *Operational and Communications Security **Classification and handling guidelines *** eg., For Official Use Only, Sensitive But Unclassified, Classified **Training and education **Devices ***e.g., personal versus agency-provided, etc. **Integration with existing tools and processes *Legal and Compliance **Copyright laws **Records retention requirements **Endorsement of products, services, and postings **Public disclosure and Sunshine laws **Privacy. *Business Continuity **Necessary access rights and password policies **Redundancies *Information Technology **Bandwidth and other resources (servers, etc.) **Training and education **Integration. *Communications and Engagement **Messaging; **Metrics and measuring success **Outreach '''Implementation''' There are several steps to adopting new technologies and methodologies, each of which require careful consideration and planning. These include the following: * Choosing the right technology and applications * Strategy, policy, and procedure development * Setting and managing expectations * Engaging the community * Managing misinformation * Addressing challenges to adoption, including concerns related to **privacy ** public comment ** record retention ** public disclosure ** health information ** human resources ** information technology ** security  +
* Il terrorismo 2.0 funziona così: si compie un attentato e poi ci pensano le migliaia di ingenui che alimentano la paura diffondendo notizie non vere a creare il clima di insicurezza e paura. * Bisogna essere preparati a rispondere in presenza e online a quello che accade ma sempre '''#nientepanico''' * Per prima cosa bisogna avere l’accortezza di ridurre le situazioni di tensione e preoccupazione. '''Please note: Access to the following link is currently only available for project partners''' Shortened version of the original document   +
* The lack of real-time data on emergent disasters often restrains the decision maker's ability to counter its impacts, especially in developing countries like India. * In this regard, the idea of leveraging mobile applications ‘apps’ for crowdsourcing disaster-related information has recently gained high prominence. * To operationalize app-based crowdsourcing, this paper methodically investigates the current state of 33 freely-accessible disaster-related mobile apps in India. * The study finds that majority of these apps are primarily educational, and their overall outreach is highly limited. * It concludes with specific suggestions for enhancing community outreach, ensuring user-friendly interface and promoting Global Positioning System ‘GPS’ based apps.   +